the earth’s form

In this study we will be looking at the earth's form and what is beneath and above it. What does the scripture say, is the earth flat or round?

torah - teachings


book

chapter

text

notes


berĕshith (genesis)

1:1-19

1 in the beginning elohim created the heavens and the earth. 2 and the earth came to be formless and empty, and darkness was on the face of the deep. and the spirit of elohim was moving on the face of the waters.3 and elohim said, “let light come to be,” and light came to be.4 and elohim saw the light, that it was good. and elohim separated the light from the darkness.5 and elohim called the light ‘day’ and the darkness he called ‘night.’ and there came to be evening and there came to be morning, one day.6 and elohim said, “let an expanse come to be in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.”7 and elohim made the expanse, and separated the waters which were under the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse. and it came to be so.8 and elohim called the expanse ‘heavens.’ and there came to be evening and there came to be morning, the second day.9 and elohim said, “let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear.” and it came to be so.10and elohim called the dry land ‘earth,’ and the collection of the waters he called ‘seas.’ and elohim saw that it was good.11 and elohim said, “let the earth bring forth grass, the plant that yields seed, and the fruit tree that yields fruit according to its kind, whose seed is in itself, on the earth.” and it came to be so.12 and the earth brought forth grass, the plant that yields seed according to its kind, and the tree that yields fruit, whose seed is in itself according to its kind. and elohim saw that it was good.13 and there came to be evening and there came to be morning, the third day.14 and elohim said, “let lights come to be in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and appointed times, and for days and years,15 and let them be for lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth.” and it came to be so.16 and elohim made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night, and the stars.17 and elohim set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth,18 and to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. and elohim saw that it was good.19 and there came to be evening and there came to be morning, the fourth day.

  • earth created before the sun, moon, stars

berĕshith (genesis)

2:1-1

1 thus the heavens and the earth were completed, and all their array

  • universe completed, not ever expanding

berĕshith (genesis)

1:29

29 and elohim said, “see, i have given you every plant that yields seed which is on the face of all the earth, and every tree whose fruit yields seed, to you it is for food

  • earth has a face

berĕshith (genesis)

4:14

14 see, you have driven me from the face of the ground today, and i am hidden from your face. i shall be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth, and it shall be that anyone who finds me kills me.

berĕshith (genesis)

6:1, 7

1 and it came to be, when men began to increase on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them...7 and יהוה said, “i am going to wipe off man whom i have created from the face of the ground, both man and beast, creeping creature and birds of the heavens, for i am sorry that i have made them.”

berĕshith (genesis)

7:3 - 4

3 and of birds of the heavens seven pairs, male and female, to keep offspring alive on the face of all the earth 4 “for after seven more days i am sending rain on the earth, forty days and forty nights, and shall wipe from the face of the earth all that stand that i created.”

berĕshith (genesis)

8:9

9 but the dove found no resting place for its feet and returned into the ark to him, for the waters were on the face of all the earth...

berĕshith (genesis)

11:8 - 9

8 and יהוה scattered them from there, over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city.9 that is why its name was called baḇel, because there יהוה confused the language of all the earth, and from there יהוה scattered them over the face of all the earth

berĕshith (genesis)

41:56

56 and the scarcity of food was over all the face of the earth, and yosĕph opened all the storehouses and sold to the mitsrites. and the scarcity of food was severe in the land of mitsrayim.

shemoth (exodus)

32:12

12 “why should the mitsrites speak, and say, ‘for evil he brought them out to kill them in the mountains, and to consume them from the face of the earth’? turn from the heat of your wrath, and relent from this evil to your people

shemoth (exodus)

33:16

16 for how then shall it be known that i have found favour in your eyes, i and your people, except you go with us? then we shall be distinguished, i and your people, from all the people who are upon the face of the earth

bemiḏbar (numbers)

12:3

3 and the man mosheh was very humble, more than all men who were on the face of the earth

deḇarim (deuteronomy)

6:15

15 for יהוה your elohim is a jealous el in your midst, lest the displeasure of יהוה your elohim burn against you, then he shall destroy you from the face of the earth

deḇarim (deuteronomy)

7:6

6 “for you are a set-apart people to יהוה your elohim. יהוה your elohim has chosen you to be a people for himself, a treasured possession above all the peoples on the face of the earth

berĕshith (genesis)

1:2

2 and the earth came to be formless and empty, and darkness was on the face of the deep. and the spirit of elohim was moving on the face of the waters

  • water have a face

berĕshith (genesis)

7:18

18 and the waters were mighty and greatly increased on the earth, and the ark moved about on the face of the waters

deḇarim (deuteronomy)

28:49, 64

49 “יהוה shall bring a nation against you from afar, from the end of the earth, as swift as the eagle flies, a nation whose language you shall not understand...64“and יהוה shall scatter you among all peoples, from one end of the earth to the other, and there you shall serve other mighty ones, which neither you nor your fathers have known, wood and stone

  • earth has ends

deḇarim (deuteronomy)

33:17

17 his splendour is like a first-born bull, and his horns are like the horns of the wild ox. with them he pushes the peoples to the ends of the earth. and they are the ten thousands of ephrayim, and they are the thousands of menashsheh.

berĕshith (genesis)

1:6-8, 14-18, 20

6 and elohim said, “let an expanse come to be in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.”7 and elohim made the expanse, and separated the waters which were under the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse. and it came to be so.8 and elohim called the expanse ‘heavens.’ and there came to be evening and there came to be morning, the second day...14 and elohim said,“let lights come to be in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and appointed times, and for days and years,15 and let them be for lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth.” and it came to be so.16 and elohim made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night, and the stars.17 and elohim set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth,18 and to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. and elohim saw that it was good...20 and elohim said, “let the waters teem with shoals of living beings, and let birds fly above the earth on the face of the expanse of the heavens.”

  • the expanse created, and thereuponfr elohim's throne exists

berĕshith (genesis)

7:11

11 in the six hundredth year of noaḥ’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the windows of the heavens were opened.

  • the waters are held back by the same expanse created in gen 1:6-8

berĕshith (genesis)

8:2

2 and the fountains of the deep and the windows of the heavens were stopped, and the rain from the heavens was withheld

berĕshith (genesis)

15:12, 17

12 and it came to be, when the sun was going down, and a deep sleep fell upon aḇram, that see, a frightening great darkness fell upon him...17 and it came to be, when the sun went down and it was dark, that see, a smoking oven and a burning torch passing between those pieces.

  • sun moves not the earth

berĕshith (genesis)

19:23

23 the sun had risen upon the earth when lot entered tso‛ar.

shemoth (exodus)

17:12

12 but mosheh’s hands were heavy, so they took a stone and put it under him, and he sat on it. and aharon and hur supported his hands, a one on one side, and the other on the other side. and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun.

shemoth (exodus)

22:3, 26

3 “if the sun has risen on him, there is guilt for his bloodshed, he shall certainly repay. if he has not the means, then he shall be sold for his theft...26 “if you take your neighbour’s garment as a pledge at all, you are to return it to him before the sun goes down.

wayyiqra (leviticus)

22:7

7‘ and when the sun goes down he shall be clean, and afterward eat the set-apart offerings, because it is his food

bemiḏbar (numbers)

2:3

3 and on the east side, towards sunrise: those of the banner of the camp of yehuḏah camp according to their divisions. and the leader of the children of yehuḏah: naḥshon, son of amminaḏaḇ.

bemiḏbar (numbers)

21:11

11 and they departed from oḇoth and camped at Iyĕ ha-aḇarim, in the wilderness which is east of mo’aḇ, toward sunrise.

bemiḏbar (numbers)

34:15

15 “the two tribes and the half-tribe have received their inheritance beyond the yardĕn of yeriḥo eastward, toward the sunrise.”

deḇarim (deuteronomy)

4:41, 47

41 then mosheh separated three cities beyond the yardĕn, toward the rising of the sun...47 and they took possession of his land and the land of oḡ sovereign of bashan, two sovereigns of the amorites, who were beyond the yardĕn, toward the rising of the sun

deḇarim (deuteronomy)

11:30

30 are they not beyond the yardĕn, toward the setting sun, in the land of the kena‛anites who dwell in the desert plain opposite gilgal, beside the terebinth trees of moreh?

deḇarim (deuteronomy)

16:6

6 but at the place where יהוה your elohim chooses to make his name dwell, there you slaughter the pĕsaḥ in the evening, at the going down of the sun, at the appointed time you came out of mitsrayim.

deḇarim (deuteronomy)

23:11

11 and it shall be, at the approach of evening, that he bathes with water. and when the sun sets let him come into the midst of the camp.

deḇarim (deuteronomy)

24:13, 15

13 “by all means return the pledge to him at sundown, and he shall sleep in his own garment, and shall bless you. and it shall be righteousness to you before יהוה your elohim...15 “give him his wages on the same day, and do not let the sun go down on it, for he is poor and lifts up his being to it, so that he does not cry out against you to יהוה, and it shall be sin in you.

berĕshith (genesis)

1:16

16 and elohim made two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night, and the stars.

  • moon has its own light

berĕshith (genesis)

13:17

17 “arise, walk in the land through its length and its width, for i give it to you.”

  • breadth, spread out flat, on the earth

deḇarim (deuteronomy)

4:19

19 and lest you lift up your eyes to the heavens, and shall see the sun, and the moon, and the stars – all the host of the heavens – and you be drawn away into bowing down to them and serving them, which יהוה your elohim has allotted to all the peoples under all the heavens.

  • creation worship

deḇarim (deuteronomy)

17:3

3 and has gone and served other mighty ones and bowed down to them, or to the sun or to the moon or to any of the host of the heavens, which i have not commanded,

berĕshith (genesis)

11:1-9

1 and all the earth had one language and one speech.2 and it came to be, as they set out from the east, that they found a plain in the land of shin‛ar and they dwelt there.3 and they said to each other, “come, let us make bricks and bake them thoroughly.” and they had brick for stone, and they had asphalt for mortar.4 and they said, “come, let us build ourselves a city, and a tower whose top is in the heavens, and make a name for ourselves, lest we be scattered over all the face of the earth.”5 then יהוה came down to see the city and the tower which the sons of men had built.6 and יהוה said, “look, they are one people and they all have one language, and this is what they begin to do! and now, they are not going to be withheld from doing whatever they plan to do.7 “come, let us go there and confuse their language, so that they do not understand one anothers speech.”8 and יהוה scattered them from there, over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city.9 that is why its name was called baḇel, because there יהוה confused the language of all the earth, and from there יהוה scattered them over the face of all the earth

  • man stands against yahuah's throne which is above the expanse

nevi'im - prophets


book

chapter

text

notes


yirmeyahu (jeremiah)

31:37

37 thus said יהוה, “if the heavens above could be measured, and the foundations of the earth searched out beneath, i would also cast off all the seed of yisra’ĕl for all that they have done,” declares יהוה.

  • earth measurements unknown

yeshayah (isaiah)

40:22

22 it is he who sits above the circle of the earth, and its inhabitants are like grasshoppers, who stretches out the heavens like a curtain, and spreads them out like a tent to dwell in,

  • earth is a disk/circle, not a ball

yehezqĕl (ezekiel)

45:1

1 “and when you divide the land by lot into inheritance, offer a contribution to יהוה, a set-apart portion of the land, in length twenty-five thousand cubits long (about 52 miles), and in width ten thousand (about 20 miles), this being set-apart throughout its border all around.

  • extremely large areas of land are flat, not curved

yeshayah (isaiah)

40:3

3 the voice of one crying in the wilderness, “prepare the way of יהוה; make straight in the desert a highway for our elohim.

  • paths are straight, not curved

yirmeyahu (jeremiah)

31:9

9 with weeping they shall come, and with their prayers i bring them. i shall make them walk by rivers of waters, in a straight way in which they do not stumble. for i shall be a father to yisra’ĕl, and ephrayim – he is my first-born.

yeshayah (isaiah)

13:13

13 “so i shall make the heavens tremble, and the earth shall shake from her place, in the wrath of יהוה of hosts and in the day of the heat of his displeasure.

  • earthquakes shake earth, and it does not move

yeshayah (isaiah)

14:7

7 “all the earth is at rest and at peace, they shall break forth into singing.

  • earth is fixed and immovable

yeshayah (isaiah)

45:18

18 for thus said יהוה, creator of the heavens, he is elohim, former of earth and its maker, he established it, he did not create it to be empty, he formed it to be inhabited: “i am יהוה, and there is none else.

zeḵaryah (zechariah)

1:11

11 and they answered the messenger of יהוה, who stood among the myrtle trees, and said, “we have gone throughout the earth, and see, all the earth is at peace and rest.”

yirmeyahu (jeremiah)

25:26

26 and all the sovereigns of the north, far and near, one with another, and all the reigns of the earth which are on the face of the ground. also the sovereign of shĕshaḵ shall drink after them.

  • earth has a face

yirmeyahu (jeremiah)

28:16

16 “therefore thus said יהוה, ‘see, i am sending you away from the face of the earth. this year you shall die, for you have spoken apostasy against יהוה

yehezqĕl (ezekiel)

34:6

6 “my sheep wandered through all the mountains, and on every high hill. and my sheep were scattered over all the face of the earth, and no one was seeking or searching for them

yehezqĕl (ezekiel)

38:20

20 so that the fish of the sea, and the birds of the heavens, and the beasts of the field, and all creeping creatures that creep on the earth, and all men who are on the face of the earth shall shake at my presence. and the mountains shall be thrown down, and the steep places shall fall, and every wall fall to the ground

yehezqĕl (ezekiel)

39:14

14 “and they shall separate men who continually pass through the land, burying those who were passing through, those left on the face of the ground, in order to cleanse it. at the end of seven months they shall search,

amos

9:6, 8

6 who is building his upper room in the heavens, and has founded his firmament on the earth, who is calling for the waters of the sea, and pours them out on the face of the earth – יהוה is his name...8 “look, the eyes of the master יהוה are on the sinful reign, and i shall destroy it from the face of the earth, except that, i do not completely destroy the house of ya‛aqoḇ,” declares יהוה

zeḵaryah (zechariah)

5:3

3 and he said to me, “this is the curse that goes forth over the face of all the earth: ‘everyone who is stealing shall go unpunished,’ on the one side, according to it, and, ‘everyone who has sworn falsely shall go unpunished,’ on the other side, according to it יהוה

yeshayah (isaiah)

5:26

26 and he shall lift up a banner to the nations from afar, and shall whistle to them from the end of the earth. and see, they come with speed, swiftly

  • earth has ends

yeshayah (isaiah)

26:15

15 you shall increase the nation, o יהוה, you shall increase the nation; you are esteemed; you shall expand all the borders of the land.

yeshayah (isaiah)

40:28

28 did you not know? have you not heard? the everlasting elohim, יהוה, the creator of the ends of the earth, neither faints nor is weary. his understanding is unsearchable.

yeshayah (isaiah)

41:5, 9

5 coastlands see it and fear, the ends of the earth are afraid – they draw near and come...9 whom i have strengthened from the ends of the earth, and called from its farthest parts, and said to you, ‘you are my servant, i have chosen you and have not rejected you.

yeshayah (isaiah)

42:10

10 sing to יהוה a new song; his praise from the ends of the earth, you who go down to the sea, and all that is in it, you coastlands and you inhabitants of them

yeshayah (isaiah)

43:6

6 “i shall say to the north, ‘give them up!’ and to the south, ‘do not keep them back!’ bring my sons from afar, and my daughters from the ends of the earth

yeshayah (isaiah)

45:22

22 “turn to me and be saved, all you ends of the earth! for i am el, and there is none else.

yeshayah (isaiah)

48:20

20 “come out of baḇel! flee from the kasdim! declare this with a voice of singing, proclaim it, send it out to the end of the earth! say, ‘יהוה has redeemed his servant ya‛aqoḇ

yeshayah (isaiah)

49:6

6 and he says, “shall it be a small matter for you to be my servant to raise up the tribes of ya‛aqoḇ, and to bring back the preserved ones of yisra’ĕl? and i shall give you as a light to the nations, to be my deliverance to the ends of the earth

yeshayah (isaiah)

52:10

10 יהוה shall lay bare his set-apart arm in the eyes of all the nations. and all the ends of the earth shall see the deliverance of our elohim

yirmeyahu (jeremiah)

10:13

13 when he makes his voice heard, there is a roaring of waters in the heavens. and he makes vapours rise from the ends of the earth. the lightnings for rain he has made, and brings wind from his treasuries.

yirmeyahu (jeremiah)

16:19

19 o יהוה, my strength and my stronghold and my refuge, in the day of distress the nations shall come to you from the ends of the earth and say, “our fathers have inherited only falsehood, futility, and there is no value in them

yirmeyahu (jeremiah)

25:31, 33

31 “tumult shall come to the ends of the earth, for יהוה has a controversy with the nations. he shall enter into judgment with all flesh. the wrong he shall give to the sword,’ declares יהוה...

33 “and in that day the slain of יהוה shall be from one end of the earth even to the other end of the earth. they shall not be lamented, or gathered, or buried, for they are dung on the face of the ground

yirmeyahu (jeremiah)

51:16

16 when he gives forth his voice the waters in the heavens roar, and he makes vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth; he makes lightnings for the rain, and he brings the wind out of his treasuries.

miḵah (micah)

5:4

4 and he shall stand and shepherd in the strength of יהוה, in the excellency of the name of יהוה his elohim. and they shall dwell, for at that time he shall be great, to the ends of the earth

zeḵaryah (zechariah)

9:10

10 “and i shall cut off the chariot from ephrayim and the horse from yerushalayim. and the battle bow shall be cut off. and he shall speak peace to the nations, and his rule is from sea to sea, and from the river to the ends of the earth

yirmeyahu (jeremiah)

9:26

26 “mitsrayim, and yehuḏah, and eḏom, and the children of ammon, and mo’aḇ, and all in the utmost corners, who dwell in the wilderness. for all the nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of yisra’ĕl are uncircumcised in heart!”

  • earth has 4 corners/quarters

yirmeyahu (jeremiah)

25:23

23 deḏan, and tĕma, and buz, and all who are in the farthest corners;

yeshayah (isaiah)

11:12

12 and he shall raise a banner for the nations, and gather the outcasts of yisra’ĕl, and assemble the dispersed of yehuḏah from the four corners of the earth

yehezqĕl (ezekiel)

7:2

2 “and you, son of man, this is what the master יהוה said to the land of yisra’ĕl, ‘an end! the end has come upon the four corners of the land

yeshayah (isaiah)

40:22

22 it is he who sits above the circle of the earth, and its inhabitants are like grasshoppers, who stretches out the heavens like a curtain, and spreads them out like a tent to dwell in

  • the expanse created, and upon where elohim's throne exists

yeshayah (isaiah)

42:5

5 thus said the el, יהוה, who created the heavens and stretched them out, who spread forth the earth and that which comes from it, who gives breath to the people on it, and spirit to those who walk on it

yeshayah (isaiah)

44:24

24 thus said יהוה, your redeemer, and he who formed you from the womb, “i am יהוה, doing all, stretching out the heavens all alone, spreading out the earth, with none beside me

yeshayah (isaiah)

45:12

12 “i have made the earth, and created man on it. i, my hands have stretched out the heavens, and all their host i have commanded

yeshayah (isaiah)

48:13

13 “also, my hand has laid the foundation of the earth, and my right hand has stretched out the heavens. i call to them, let them stand together

yehezqĕl (ezekiel)

1:22-26

22 and a likeness was over the heads of the living creatures, an expanse like the appearance of an awesome crystal, stretched out over their heads.23 and under the expanse their wings were straight, one toward another. each one had two which covered one side, and each one had two which covered the other side of the body.24 and when they went, i heard the noise of their wings, like the noise of many waters, like the voice of the almighty, a tumult like the noise of an army. and when they stood still, they let down their wings.25 and a voice came from above the expanse that was over their heads. when they stood, they dropped their wings.26 and above the expanse over their heads was the likeness of a throne, in appearance like a sapphire stone. and on the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man high above it.

yehezqĕl (ezekiel)

10:1

1 and i looked and saw in the expanse that was above the head of the keruḇim, like a sapphire stone, having the appearance of the likeness of a throne

amos

9:6

6 who is building his upper room in the heavens, and has founded his firmament on the earth, who is calling for the waters of the sea, and pours them out on the face of the earth – יהוה is his name.

yeshayah (isaiah)

41:25

25 “i have stirred up one from the north, and he comes; from the rising of the sun he calls on my name. and he comes against princes as though mortar, as the potter treads clay.

  • the sun moves, not the earth

yeshayah (isaiah)

45:6

6 so that they know from the rising of the sun to its setting that there is none but me. i am יהוה, and there is none else,

yeshayah (isaiah)

59:19

19 and they shall fear the name of יהוה from the west, and his esteem from the rising of the sun, when distress comes like a flood, the spirit of יהוה drives at it.

yirmeyahu (jeremiah)

15:9

9 “she who has borne seven shall pine away. she shall breathe her last. her sun shall go down while it is yet day. she shall be put to shame and be humiliated. and their remnant i give up to the sword before their enemies,” declares יהוה

amos

8:9

9 “and it shall be in that day,” declares the master יהוה, “that i shall cause the sun to go down at noon, and shall darken the earth on a day of brightness

yonah (jonah)

4:8

8 and it came to be when the sun came up, that elohim appointed a scorching east wind, and the sun struck on yonah’s head, so that he grew faint, and asked for his life to die, and said, “it is better for me to die than to live

miḵah (micah)

3:6

6 therefore it shall be night to you without vision, and darkness to you without divination. the sun shall go down on the prophets, and the day shall be dark for them

naḥum (nahum)

3:17

17 your officials are like the locusts, and your marshals are like the great grasshoppers, which settle in the hedges on a cold day – when the sun rises they flee away, and the place where they are is unknown

mal’aḵi (malachi)

1:11

11 “for from the rising of the sun, even to its going down, my name is great among nations. and in every place incense is presented to my name, and a clean offering. for my name is great among nations,” said יהוה of hosts

yeshayah (isaiah)

60:20

20 “no longer does your sun go down, nor your moon withdraw itself, for יהוה shall be your everlasting light, and the days of your mourning shall be ended

  • sun stops moving

haḇaqquq (habakkuk)

3:11

11 sun, moon shall stand still in their places. like light your arrows fly, like lightning is your glittering spear

yeshayah (isaiah)

13:10

10 for the stars of the heavens and their constellations do not give off their light. the sun shall be dark at its rising, and the moon not send out its light.

  • moon has its own light

yeshayah (isaiah)

30:26

26 and the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun be sevenfold, as the light of seven days, in the day that יהוה binds up the breach of his people, and heals the wound of his blows

yeshayah (isaiah)

60:19-20

19 “no longer is the sun your light by day, nor does the moon give light to you for brightness, but יהוה shall be to you an everlasting light, and your elohim your comeliness.20 “no longer does your sun go down, nor your moon withdraw itself, for יהוה shall be your everlasting light, and the days of your mourning shall be ended.

yirmeyahu (jeremiah)

31:35

35 thus said יהוה, who gives the sun for a light by day, and the laws of the moon and the stars for a light by night, who stirs up the sea, and its waves roar – יהוה of hosts is his name

yehezqĕl (ezekiel)

32:7

7 and when i extinguish you, i shall cover the heavens, and make its stars dark. i shall cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not give her light

yeshayah (isaiah)

8:8

8 “and he shall pass through yehuḏah, he shall overflow and pass over, reaching up to the neck. and the stretching out of his wings shall fill the breadth of your land, o immanu’ĕl.

  • breadth, spread out flat, on the earth

yeshayah (isaiah)

42:5

5 thus said the el, יהוה, who created the heavens and stretched them out, who spread forth the earth and that which comes from it, who gives breath to the people on it, and spirit to those who walk on it

yeshayah (isaiah)

40:4-5

4 “let every valley be raised, and every mountain and hill made low. and the steep ground shall become level, and the rough places smooth.5 “and the esteem of יהוה shall be revealed, and all flesh together shall see it. for the mouth of יהוה has spoken

  • flat earth prophecy

yirmeyahu (jeremiah)

8:2

2 and shall spread them before the sun and the moon and all the host of the heavens, which they have loved and which they have served and after which they have walked, which they have sought, and to which they have bowed themselves. they shall not be gathered nor buried, they shall be for dung on the face of the earth

  • creation worshippers

yeshayah (isaiah)

14:12-15

12 “how you have fallen from the heavens, o hĕlĕl,the shining one, son of the morning! you have been cut down to the ground, you who laid low the nations!13 “for you have said in your heart, ‘let me go up to the heavens, let me raise my throne above the stars of el, and let me sit in the mount of appointment on the sides of the north;14 let me go up above the heights of the clouds, let me be like the most high.’15 “but you are brought down to she’ol, to the sides of the pit

  • man stands against yahuah's throne which is above the expanse

ket'vim - wisdom literature


book

chapter

text

notes


iyob (job)

38:4-5, 18

4 where were you when i laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if you have understanding.5 who set its measurements, if you know? or who stretched the line upon it?...18 have you understood the breadth of the earth? declare, if you know it all.

  • earths measurements unknown

mishlĕ (proverbs)

25:3

3 the heavens for height and the earth for depth, but the heart of sovereigns is unsearchable

mishlĕ (proverbs)

8:27

27 “when he prepared the heavens, i was there, when he inscribed a circle on the face of the deep

  • earth is a disk/circle, not a ball

iyob (job)

38:13-14

13 to take hold of the ends of the earth, and the wrong be shaken out of it?14I i is changed like clay under a seal, and they stand out like a garment

iyob (job)

38:4-5

4 where were you when i laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if you have understanding.5 who set its measurements, if you know? or who stretched the line upon it?

  • earth measured with a line, not a curve

shemu’ĕl aleph (1 samuel)

6:12

12 and the cows went straight for the way to bĕyth shemesh, and went along the highway, bellowing as they went, and did not turn aside, right or left. and the princes of the philistines went after them to the border of bĕyth shemesh.

  • paths are straight, not curved

tehillim (psalms)

5:8

8 יהוה, lead me in your righteousness because of those watching me; make your way straight before my face

tehillim (psalms)

27:11

11 teach me your way, o יהוה, and lead me in a straight path, because of my enemies.

iyob (job)

37:10

10 by the breath of el ice is given, and the expanse of water becomes straightend.

  • water are straight, not curved

shemu’ĕl bĕt (2 samuel)

22:8

8 “and the earth shook and trembled, the foundations of the heavens were troubled, because he was wroth.

  • earthquakes shake the earth, and it does not move

diḇre hayamim aleph (1 chronicles)

16:30

30 tremble before him, all the earth. the world also is firmly established, immovable

  • earth is fixed and immovable

tehillim (psalms)

33:9

9 for he spoke, and it came to be; he commanded, and it stood fast.

tehillim (psalms)

93:1

1 יהוה shall reign, he shall put on excellency; יהוה shall put on strength; he shall gird himself. indeed, the world is established, immovable.

tehillim (psalms)

96:10

10 say among nations, “יהוה shall reign. the world also is established, immovable. he judges the peoples in straightness

tehillim (psalms)

104:5

5 he established the earth on its foundations, so that it would not totter forever

tehillim (psalms)

119:89-90

89 lamed forever, o יהוה, your word stands firm in the heavens.90 your trustworthiness is to all generations; you established the earth, and it stands

  • earth has pillars, and hangs on nothing

shemu’ĕl aleph (1 samuel)

2:8

8 “he raises the poor from the dust, he lifts the needy from the dunghill, to sit with princes, and make them inherit a throne of esteem. for the supports of the earth belong to יהוה, and he has set the world upon them

iyob (job)

9:6

6 who shakes the earth out of its place, and its columns tremble

iyob (job)

26:7

7 he it was who stretched out the north over emptiness, hanging the earth upon space

tehillim (psalms)

75:3

3 the earth and all its inhabitants are melted; It is i who set its columns firm. selah

shemu’ĕl aleph (1 samuel)

20:15

15 and do not cut off your loving-commitment from my house forever, no, not when יהוה has cut off every one of the enemies of dawiḏ from the face of the earth

  • earth has a face

melaḵim aleph (1 kings)

13:34

34 and this matter was the sin of the house of yaroḇ‛am, even to cut it off and destroy it from the face of the earth

iyob (job)

37:12

12 and they swirl about, being turned by his guidance, to do whatever he commands them on the face of the earthly world

tehillim (psalms)

104:30

30 you send forth your spirit, they are created; and you renew the face of the earth

iyob (job)

38:30

30 the waters harden like stone, and the face of the deep is frozen

  • waters have a face

shemu’ĕl aleph (1 samuel)

2:10

10 “those who oppose יהוה are shattered, from the heavens he thunders against them. יהוה judges the ends of the earth, and gives strength to his sovereign, and exalts the horn of his anointed.

  • earth has ends

iyob (job)

37:3

3 he lets it loose under all the heavens, and his lightning to the ends of the earth

iyob (job)

38:13

13 to take hold of the ends of the earth, and the wrong be shaken out of it?

tehillim (psalms)

46:9

9 causing all fighting to cease, unto the end of the earth. he breaks the bow and shatters the spear; he burns the chariot with fire.

tehillim (psalms)

48:10

10 according to your name, o elohim, so is your praise to the ends of the earth; your right hand is filled with righteousness

tehillim (psalms)

59:13

13 bring them to an end in wrath, bring them to an end, that they be no more; and let them know that elohim is ruling in ya‛aqoḇ to the ends of the earth. selah

tehillim (psalms)

61:2

2 from the end of the earth i call unto you, when my heart is faint; lead me to the rock that is higher than i

tehillim (psalms)

65:5

5 by awesome deeds in righteousness you answer us, o elohim of our deliverance, the trust of all the ends of the earth, and the distant seas

tehillim (psalms)

67:7

7 elohim blesses us! and all the ends of the earth fear him!

tehillim (psalms)

72:8

8 and let him rule from sea to sea, and from the river to the ends of the earth

tehillim (psalms)

98:3

3 he has remembered his loving-commitment and his trustworthiness to the house of yisra’ĕl; all the ends of the earth have seen the deliverance of our elohim

tehillim (psalms)

135:7

7 causing vapours to go up from the ends of the earth; he made lightning for the rain, bringing forth wind from his treasuries

mishlĕ (proverbs)

8:29

29 “when he gave to the sea its law, so that the waters would not transgress his mouth, when he inscribed the foundations of the earth

mishlĕ (proverbs)

17:24

24 wisdom is before the face of the understanding one, but the eyes of a fool are on the ends of the earth

mishlĕ (proverbs)

30:4

4 who has gone up to the heavens and come down? who has gathered the wind in his fists? who has bound the waters in a garment? who established all the ends of the earth? what is his name, and what is his son’s name, if you know it?

dani’ĕl (daniel)

4:22

22 it is you, o sovereign, for you have become great and strong. and your greatness has grown, and has reached to the heavens and your rulership to the end of the earth

qoheleth (ecclesiastes)

1:6

6 going to the south, and turning round to the north, turning, turning, and on its rounds the wind returns.

  • earth has four corners

iyob (job)

9:8

8 stretching out the heavens by himself, and treading upon the waves of the sea

  • the expanse created, and thereupon elohim's throne exists

iyob (job)

26:7

7 he it was who stretched out the north over emptiness, hanging the earth upon space

iyob (job)

28:24

24 for he looks to the ends of the earth, sees under all the heavens

iyob (job)

37:3, 18

3 he lets it loose under all the heavens, and his lightning to the ends of the earth...18 did you, with him, spread out the expanse, strong as a hard mirror?

tehillim (psalms)

19:1

1 the heavens are proclaiming the esteem of el; and the expanse is declaring the work of his hand

tehillim (psalms)

148:4

4 praise him, heavens of heavens, and you waters above the heavens!

tehillim (psalms)

150:1

1 praise yah! praise el in his set-apart place; praise him in his mighty expanse!

tehillim (psalms)

8:28

28 “when he set the clouds above, when he made the fountains of the deep strong

dani’ĕl (daniel)

12:3

3 “and those who have insight shall shine like the brightness of the expanse, and those who lead many to righteousness like the stars forever and ever

yehoshua (joshua)

1:15

15 until יהוה has given your brothers rest, as unto you. so shall they also take possession of the land which יהוה your elohim is giving them. then you shall return to the land of your possession, and shall possess that which mosheh the servant of יהוה gave you beyond the yardĕn toward the rising of the sun

  • sun moves, not earth

yehoshua (joshua)

8:29

29 and he hanged the sovereign of ai on a tree until evening. and at sunset yehoshua commanded that they should take his corpse down from the tree, and throw it at the entrance of the gate of the city, and raise over it a great heap of stones, to this day

yehoshua (joshua)

10:27

27 and it came to be, at the time of the going down of the sun, that yehoshua commanded, and they took them down from the trees, and threw them into the cave where they had been hidden, and laid large stones against the cave’s mouth, to this day

yehoshua (joshua)

12:1

1 and these are the sovereigns of the land whom the children of yisra’ĕl smote, and whose land they possessed beyond the yardĕn towards the sun-rising, from the wadi arnon to mount hermon, and all the desert plain eastward

yehoshua (joshua)

13:5

5 and the land of the geḇalites, and all leḇanon, toward the sunrise, from baʽal gaḏ below mount hermon as far as the entrance to hamath

yehoshua (joshua)

19:12, 27, 34

12 and turned back from sariḏ eastward toward the sunrise, to the border of kisloth taḇor, and went out toward daḇerath, and went up to yaphiya...27 and turned toward the sunrise, to bĕyth daḡon, and reached to zeḇulun and to the valley of yiphthaḥ el, then northward beyond bĕyth emeq and neʽi’ĕl, and went out to kaḇul which was on the left...34 and the border turned westward to aznoth taḇor, and went out from there toward huqqoq, and reached to zeḇulun on the south side and ashĕr on the west side, and ended at yehuḏah by the yardĕn toward the sunrise

shophetim (judges)

9:33

33 “and it shall be, as soon as the sun is up in the morning, then rise early and rush upon the city. and see, when he and the people who are with him come out against you, you shall do to them as your hand finds to do

shophetim (judges)

19:14

14 and they passed over and went their way. and the sun went down on them near giḇʽah, which belongs to binyamin

shophetim (judges)

20:43

43 they surrounded the binyamites and pursued them, and with ease trampled them down as far as the front of giḇʽah toward the sunrising

shemu’ĕl bĕt (2 samuel)

2:24

24 and yo’aḇ and aḇishai pursued aḇnĕr. and the sun was going down and they came to the hill of ammah, which overlooks giyaḥ by the way to the wilderness of giḇʽon

shemu’ĕl bĕt (2 samuel)

3:35

35 and all the people came to cause dawiḏ to eat food while it was still day, but dawiḏ swore, saying, “elohim do so to me, and more also, if i taste bread or whatever else till the sun goes down!

shemu’ĕl bĕt (2 samuel)

23:4

4 “who rules in the fear of elohim, is like the light of the morning when the sun rises, a morning without clouds, tender grass from the earth from sunshine, from rain

melaḵim aleph (1 kings)

22:36

36 and as the sun was going down, a shout passed through the camp, saying, “each to his city, and each to his land!

diḇre hayamim bĕt (2 chronicles)

18:34

34 but the battle increased that day, and the sovereign of yisra’ĕl was propped up in his chariot facing the arameans until evening, and he died at the time of the going down of the sun

tehillim (psalms)

50:1

1 el elohim יהוה shall speak, and he shall call the earth from the rising of the sun to its going down

tehillim (psalms)

113:3

3 from the rising of the sun to its going down, the name of יהוה is praised

qoheleth (ecclesiastes)

1:5

5 the sun also rises, and the sun sets, and hurries back to the place where it arose

dani’ĕl (daniel)

6:14

14 then the sovereign, when he heard these words, was greatly displeased with himself, and set his heart on dani’ĕl to deliver him. and he laboured till the going down of the sun to deliver him

iyob (job)

9:7

7 who commands the sun, and it does not rise; and he seals up the stars

  • sun stops moving

yehoshua (joshua)

10:12-14

12 then yehoshua spoke to יהוה in the day when יהוה gave the amorites over to the children of yisra’ĕl, and he said before the eyes of yisra’ĕl, “sun, stand still over giḇʽon; and moon, in the valley of ayalon.” 13 so the sun stood still, and the moon stopped, till the nation avenged itself upon their enemies. is this not written in the book of yashar? thus the sun stopped in the midst of the heavens, and did not hasten to go down for an entire day. 14 and there has been no day like that, before it or after it, that יהוה listened to the voice of a man, because יהוה fought for yisra’ĕl

melaḵim bĕt (2 kings)

20:8-11

8 and hizqiyahu said to yeshayahu, “what is the sign that יהוה does heal me, and that i shall go up to the house of יהוה the third day?” 9 and yeshayahu said, “this is the sign for you from יהוה, that יהוה does the word which he has spoken: shall the shadow go forward ten degrees or go backward ten degrees?” 10 and hizqiyahu said, “it would be easy for the shadow to go down ten degrees; no, but let the shadow go backward ten degrees.” 11 and yeshayahu the prophet cried out to יהוה, and he brought the shadow ten degrees backward, by which it had gone down on the sundial of aḥaz

  • sun moves backwards

dani’ĕl (daniel)

4:11, 20

11 “the tree became great and strong, and its height reached to the heavens, and it was visible to the ends of all the earth...20 “the tree you saw, which became great and strong, whose height reached to the heavens and was visible to all the earth

  • abstract view of high altitute perspective with concrete meaning

iyob (job)

38:18

18 have you understood the breadth of the earth? declare, if you know it all

  • breadth, spread out flat, on the earth

tehillim (psalms)

19:4

4 their line has gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. in them he set up a tent for the sun

  • voice of creation goes out in a line through all the earth

melaḵim bĕt (2 kings)

23:5

5 and he put down the black-robed priests whom the sovereigns of yehuḏah had appointed to burn incense on the high places in the cities of yehuḏah and in the places all around yerushalayim, and those who burned incense to baʽal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the constellations, and to all the host of the heavens.

  • creation worshipping

tehillim (psalms)

2

1 why do the gentiles rage, and the peoples meditate emptiness? 2 the sovereigns of the earth take their stand, and the rulers take counsel together, against יהוה and against his messiah, and say, 3 “let us tear apart their bonds, and throw away their ropes from us.” 4 he who is sitting in the heavens laughs, יהוה mocks at them. 5 then he speaks to them in his wrath, and troubles them in his rage, saying, 6 “but i, i have set my sovereign on tsiyon, my set-apart mountain.” 7 “i inscribe for a law: יהוה has said to me, ‘you are my son, today i have brought you forth. 8 ‘ask of me, and i make the gentiles your inheritance, and the ends of the earth your possession. 9 ‘break them with a rod of iron, dash them to pieces like a potter’s vessel.’ 10 and now, be wise, o sovereigns; be instructed, you rulers of the earth. 11 serve יהוה with fear, and rejoice with trembling. 12 kiss the heir, lest he be enraged, and you perish in the way, for soon his wrath is to be kindled. blessed are all those taking refuge in him.

  • man stand against yahuah's throne which is above the expanse