In this study, we’ll be asking, what are the function of the stars? Was their secrets ever made known? How do they contribute to keeping the Creator’s times and seasons?
torah – Teachings
14 Then God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years; 15 and let them be for lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth”; and it was so. 16 God made the two great lights, the greater light to govern the day, and the lesser light to govern the night, the stars. 17 God placed them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth, 18 and to govern the day and the night, and to separate the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good. 19 There was evening and there was morning, a fourth day. [NASB]
genuzim – Apocrypha
53:18 – 21
18 And he ordered them to bring before him his map of the stars, whereby Joseph knew all the times, and Joseph said unto Benjamin, I have heard that the Hebrews are acquainted with all wisdom, dost thou know anything of this?19 And Benjamin said, Thy servant is knowing also in all the wisdom which my father taught me, and Joseph said unto Benjamin, Look now at this instrument and understand where thy brother Joseph is in Egypt, who you said went down to Egypt.20 And Benjamin beheld that instrument with the map of the stars of heaven, and he was wise and looked therein to know where his brother was, and Benjamin divided the whole land of Egypt into four divisions, and he found that he who was sitting upon the throne before him was his brother Joseph, and Benjamin wondered greatly, and when Joseph saw that his brother Benjamin was so much astonished, he said unto Benjamin, What hast thou seen, and why art thou astonished?21 And Benjamin said unto Joseph, I can see by this that Joseph my brother sits here with me upon the throne, and Joseph said unto him, I am Joseph thy brother, reveal not this thing unto thy brethren; behold I will send thee with them when they go away, and I will command them to be brought back again into the city, and I will take thee away from them.
6. I saw the winds which turn the sky, which cause the orb of the sun and of all the stars to set; and over the earth I saw the winds which support the clouds.7. I saw the path of the angels.8. I perceived at the extremity of the earth the firmament of heaven above it. Then I passed on towards the south; 9. Where burnt, both by day and night, six mountains formed of glorious stones; three towards the east, and three towards the south.10. Those which were towards the east were of a variegated stone; one of which was of margarite, and another of antimony. Those towards the south were of a red stone. The middle one reached to heaven like the throne of Elohim; a throne composed of alabaster, the top of which was of sapphire. I saw, too, a blazing fire hanging over 1 all the mountains.11. And there I saw a place on the other side of an extended territory, where waters were collected.12. I likewise beheld terrestrial fountains, deep in the fiery columns of heaven.13. And in the columns of heaven I beheld fires, which descended without number, but neither on high, nor into the deep. Over these fountains also I perceived a place which had neither the firmament of heaven above it, nor the solid ground underneath it; neither was there water above it, nor anything on wing; but the spot was desolate.14. And there I beheld seven stars, like great blazing mountains, and like spirits entreating me.15. Then the angel said, This place, until the consummation of heaven and earth, will be the prison of the stars, and the host of heaven.16. The stars which roll over fire are those which transgressed the commandment of Elohim before their time arrived; for they came not in their proper season. Therefore was He offended with them, and bound them, until the period of the consummation of their crimes in the secret year.
32:2 – 4
2. To the east of these beasts I perceived the extremities of the earth, where heaven ceased. The gates of heaven stood open, and I beheld the celestial stars come forth. I numbered them as they proceeded out of the gate, and wrote them all down, as they came out one by one according to their number. I wrote down their names altogether, their times and their seasons, as the messenger Uriel, who was with me, pointed them out to me.3. He showed them all to me, and wrote down an account of them.4. He also wrote down for me their names, their regulations, and their operations.
71:1 – 4
1. The book of the revolutions of the luminaries of heaven, according to their respective classes, their respective powers, their respective periods, their respective names, the places where they commence their progress, and their respective months, which Uriel, the set apart messenger who was with me, explained to me; he who conducts them. The whole account of them, according to every year of the world for ever, until a new work shall be effected, which will be eternal.2. This is the first law of the luminaries. The sun and the light arrive at the gates of heaven, which are on the east, and on the west of it at the western gates of heaven.3. I beheld the gates whence the sun goes forth; and the gates where the sun sets; 4. In which gates also the moon rises and sets; and I beheld the conductors of the stars, among those who precede them; six gates were at the rising, and six at the setting of the sun.
17. The sun now returns to the east, entering into the sixth gate, and rising and setting in the sixth gate thirty-one days, on account of its signs. 24. Then the sun goes from the fifth gate, as it sets in the fifth gate of the west; and rises in the fourth gate for thirty-one days, on account of its signs, setting in the west.
Every 3rd month, the sun rises and sets for 31 days on account of its signs. These signs are related to the stars.
73:10 – 12
10. Thus I beheld their stations, as according to the fixed order of the months the sun rises and sets.11. At those times there is an excess of thirty days belonging to the sun in five years; all the days belonging to each year of the five years, when completed, amount to three hundred and sixty-four days; and to the sun and stars belong six days; six days in each of the five years; thus thirty days belong to them;12. So that the moon has thirty days less than the sun and stars.
74:1 – 15
1. These are the leaders of the chiefs of the thousands, those which preside over all creation, and over all the stars; with the four days which are added and never separated from the place allotted them, according to the complete computation of the year.2. And these serve four days, which are not computed in the computation of the year.3. Respecting them, men greatly err, for these luminaries truly serve, in the mansion of the world, one day in the first gate, one in the third gate, one in the fourth, and one in the sixth gate.4. And the harmony of the world becomes complete every three hundred and sixty-fourth state of it. For the signs,5. The seasons,6. The years,7. And the days, Uriel showed me; the angel whom YHWH of glory appointed over all the luminaries.8. Of heaven in heaven, and in the world; that they might rule in the face of the sky, and appearing over the earth, become 9. Conductors of the days and nights: the sun, the moon, the stars, and all the ministers of heaven, which make their circuit with all the chariots of heaven.10. Thus Uriel showed me twelve gates open for the circuit of the chariots of the sun in heaven, from which the rays of the sun shoot forth.11. From these proceed heat over the earth, when they are opened in their stated seasons. They are for the winds, and the spirit of the dew, when in their seasons they are opened; opened in heaven at its extremities.12. Twelve gates I beheld in heaven, at the extremities of the earth, through which the sun, moon, and stars, and all the works of heaven, proceed at their rising and setting.13. Many windows also are open on the right and on the left.14. One window at a certain season grows extremely hot. So also are there gates from which the stars go forth as they are commanded, and in which they set according to their number.15. I saw likewise the chariots of heaven, running in the world above to those gates in which the stars turn, which never set. One of these is greater than all, which goes round the whole world.
2.chiefs of thousands
1.One day in the 1st gate
2.One day in the 3rd gate
3.One day in the 4th gate
4.One day in the 6th gate
78:1 – 5
1. And now, my son Mathusala, I have shown thee everything; and the account of every ordinance of the stars of heaven is finished.2. He showed me every ordinance respecting these, which takes place at all times and in all seasons under every influence, in all years, at the arrival and under the rule of each, during every month and every week. He showed me also the decrease of the moon, which is effected in the sixth gate; for in that sixth gate is its light consumed.3. From this is the beginning of the month; and its decrease is effected in the sixth gate in its period, until a hundred and seventy-seven days are completed; according to the mode of computation by weeks, twenty-five weeks and two days.4. Its period is less than that of the sun, according to the ordinance of the stars, by five days in one half year precisely.5. When that their visible situation is completed. Such is the appearance and likeness of every luminary, which Thiel, the great angel who conducts them, showed to me.
79:1 – 10
1. In those days Uriel answered and said to me, Behold, I have showed you all things, O Enoch; 2. And all things have I revealed to you. You see the sun, the moon, and those which conduct the stars of heaven, which cause all their operations, seasons, and arrivals to return. 3. In the days of sinners the years shall be shortened.4. Their seed shall be backward in their prolific soil; and everything done on earth shall be subverted, and disappear in its season. The rain shall be restrained, and heaven shall stand still.5. In those days the fruits of the earth shall be late, and not flourish in their season; and in their season the fruits of the trees shall be withheld.6. The moon shall change its laws, and not be seen at its proper period. But in those days shall heaven be seen; and barrenness shall take place in the borders of the great chariots in the west. Heaven shall shine more than when illuminated by the orders of light; while many chiefs among the stars of authority shall err, perverting their ways and works.7. Those shall not appear in their season, who command them, and all the classes of the stars shall be shut up against sinners.8. The thoughts of those who dwell on earth shall transgress within them; and they shall be perverted in all their ways.9. They shall transgress, and think themselves gods; while evil shall be multiplied among them.10. And punishment shall come upon them, so that all of them shall be destroyed.
81:5 – 25
5. With respect to the progress of the sun in heaven, it enters and goes out of each gate for thirty days, with the leaders of the thousand classes of the stars; with four which are added, and appertain to the four quarters of the year, which conduct them, and accompany them at four periods.6. Respecting these, men greatly err, and do not compute them in the computation of every age; for they greatly err respecting them; nor do men know accurately that they are in the computation of the year. But indeed these are marked down for ever; one in the first gate, one in the third, one in the fourth, and one in the sixth:7. So that the year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days.8. Truly has been stated, and accurately has been computed that which is marked down; for the luminaries, the months, the fixed periods, the years, and the days, Uriel has explained to me, and communicated to me; whom YHWH of all creation, on my account, commanded (according to the might of heaven, and the power which it possesses both by night and by day) to explain the laws of light to man, of the sun, moon, and stars, and of all the powers of heaven, which are turned with their respective orbs.9. This is the ordinance of the stars, which set in their places, in their seasons, in their periods, in their days, and in their months.10. These are the names of those who conduct them, who watch and enter in their seasons, according to their ordinance in their periods, in their months, in the times of their influence, and in their stations.11. Four conductors of them first enter, who separate the four quarters of the year. After these, twelve conductors of their classes, who separate the months and the year into three hundred and sixty-four days, with the leaders of a thousand, who distinguish between the days, as well as between the four additional ones; which, as conductors, divide the four quarters of the year.12. These leaders of a thousand are in the midst of the conductors, and the conductors are added each behind his station, and their conductors make the separation. These are the names of the conductors, who separate the four quarters of the year, who are appointed over them: Melkel, Helammelak,13. Meliyal, and Narel.14. And the names of those who conduct them are Adnarel, Jyasusal, and Jyelumeal.15. These are the three who follow after the conductors of the classes of stars; each following after the three conductors of the classes, which themselves follow after those conductors of the stations, who divide the four quarters of the year.16. In the first part of the year rises and rules Melkyas, who is named Tamani, and Zahay.17. All the days of his influence, during which he rules, are ninety-one days.18. And these are the signs of the days which are seen upon earth. In the days of his influence there is perspiration, heat, and trouble. All the trees become fruitful; the leaf of every tree comes forth; the corn is reaped; the rose and every species of flowers blossoms in the field; and the trees of winter are dried up.19. These are the names of the conductors who are under them: Barkel, Zelsabel; and another additional conductor of a thousand is named Heloyalef, the days of whose influence have been completed. The other conductor next after them is Helemmelek, whose name they call the splendid Zahay.20. All the days of his light are ninety-one days.21. These are the signs of the days upon earth, heat and drought; while the trees bring forth their fruits, warmed and concocted, and give their fruits to dry.22. The flocks follow and yean. All the fruits of the earth are collected, with everything in the fields, and the vines are trodden. This takes place during the time of his influence.23. These are their names and orders, and the names of the conductors who are under them, of those who are chiefs of a thousand: Gedaeyal, Keel, Heel.24. And the name of the additional leader of a thousand is Asphael.25. The days of his influence have been completed.