The Sun

ket’vim – Wisdom Literature


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Psalms

19:1 – 7

1 For the choir director. A Psalm of David. The heavens are telling of the glory of elohim; And their expanse is declaring the work of His hands. 2 Day to day pours forth speech, And night to night reveals knowledge. 3 There is no speech, nor are there words; Their voice is not heard. 4 Their line has gone out through all the earth, And their utterances to the end of the world. In them He has placed a tent for the sun, 5 Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber; It rejoices as a strong man to run his course. 6 Its rising is from one end of the heavens, And its circuit to the other end of them; And there is nothing hidden from its heat. 7 The law of YHWH is perfect, restoring the soul; The testimony of YHWH is sure, making wise the simple.

[NASB]

Apocryphal


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Enoch

72:2 – 35

2. This is the first law of the luminaries. The sun and the light arrive at the gates of heaven, which are on the east, and on the west of it at the western gates of heaven.3. I beheld the gates whence the sun goes forth; and the gates where the sun sets;4. In which gates also the moon rises and sets; and I beheld the conductors of the stars, among those who precede them; six gates were at the rising, and six at the setting of the sun.5. All these respectively, one after another, are on a level; and numerous windows are on the right and on the left sides of those gates.6. First proceeds forth that great luminary, which is called the sun; the orb of which is as the orb of heaven, the whole of it being replete with splendid and flaming fire.7. Its chariot, where it ascends, the wind blows.8. The sun sets in heaven, and, returning by the north, to proceed towards the east, is conducted so as to enter by that gate, and illuminate the face of heaven.9. In the same manner it goes forth in the first month by a great gate.10. It goes forth through the fourth of those six gates, which are at the rising of the sun.11. And in the fourth gate, through which the sun with the moon proceeds, in the first part of it, there are twelve open windows; from which issues out a flame, when they are opened at their proper periods.12. When the sun rises in heaven, it goes forth through this fourth gate thirty days, and by the fourth gate in the west of heaven on a level with it descends.13. During that period the day is lengthened from the day, and the night curtailed from the night for thirty days. And then the day is longer by two parts than the night.14. The day is precisely ten parts, and the night is eight.15. The sun goes forth through this fourth gate, and sets in it, and turns to the fifth gate during thirty days; after which it proceeds from, and sets in, the fifth gate.16. Then the day becomes lengthened by a second portion, so that it is eleven parts: while the night becomes shortened, and is only seven parts.17. The sun now returns to the east, entering into the sixth gate, and rising and setting in the sixth gate thirty-one days, on account of its signs.18. At that period the day is longer than the night, being twice as long as the night; and becomes twelve parts;19. But the night is shortened, and becomes six parts. Then the sun rises up, that the day may be shortened, and the night lengthened.20. And the sun returns towards the east, entering into the sixth gate, where it rises and sets for thirty days.21. When that period is completed, the day becomes shortened precisely one part, so that it is eleven parts, while the night is seven parts.22. Then the sun goes from the west, from that sixth gate, and proceeds eastwards, rising in the fifth gate for thirty days, and setting again westwards in the fifth gate of the west.23. At that period the day becomes shortened two parts; and is ten parts, while the night is eight parts.24. Then the sun goes from the fifth gate, as it sets in the fifth gate of the west; and rises in the fourth gate for thirty-one days, on account of its signs, setting in the west.25. At that period the day is made equal with the night; and, being equal with it, the night becomes nine parts, and the day nine parts.26. Then the sun goes from that gate, as it sets in the west; and returning to the east proceeds by the third gate for thirty days, setting in the west at the third gate.27. At that period the night is lengthened from the day during thirty mornings, and the day is curtailed from the day during thirty days; the night being ten parts precisely, and the day eight parts.28. The sun now goes from the third gate, as it sets in the third gate in the west; but returning to the east, it proceeds by the second gate of the east for thirty days.29. In like manner also it sets in the second gate in the west of heaven.30. At that period the night is eleven parts, and the day seven parts.31. Then the sun goes at that time from the second gate, as it sets in the second gate in the west; but returns to the east, proceeding by the first gate, for thirty-one days.32. And sets in the west in the first gate.33. At that period the night is lengthened as much again as the day.34. It is twelve parts precisely, while the day is six parts.35. The sun has thus completed its beginnings, and a second time goes round from these beginnings.36. Into that gate it enters for thirty days, and sets in the west, in the opposite part of heaven.37. At that period the night is contracted in its length a fourth part, that is, one portion, and becomes eleven parts.38. The day is seven parts.39. Then the sun returns, and enters into the second gate of the east.40. It returns by these beginnings thirty days, rising and setting.41. At that period the night is contracted in its length. It becomes ten parts, and the day eight parts. Then the sun goes from that second gate, and sets in the west; but returns to the east, and rises in the east, in the third gate, thirty-one days, setting in the west of heaven.42. At that period the night becomes shortened. It is nine parts. And the night is equal with the day. The year is precisely three hundred and sixty-four days.43. The lengthening of the day and night, and the contraction of the day and night, are made to differ from each other by the progress of the sun.44. By means of this progress the day is daily lengthened, and the night greatly shortened.45. This is the law and progress of the sun, and its turning when it turns back, turning during sixty days, and going forth. This is the great everlasting luminary, that which he names the sun for ever and ever.46. This also is that which goes forth a great luminary, and which is named after its peculiar kind, as God commanded.47. And thus it goes in and out, neither slackening nor resting; but running on in its chariot by day and by night. It shines with a seventh portion of light from the moon; but the dimensions of both are equal.

Enoch

74:10 – 16

10. Thus I beheld their stations, as according to the fixed order of the months the sun rises and sets.11. At those times there is an excess of thirty days belonging to the sun in five years; all the days belonging to each year of the five years, when completed, amount to three hundred and sixty-four days; and to the sun and stars belong six days; six days in each of the five years; thus thirty days belong to them;12. So that the moon has thirty days less than the sun and stars.13. The moon brings on all the years exactly, that their stations may come neither too forwards nor too backwards a single day; but that the years may be changed with correct precision in three hundred and sixty-four days. In three years the days are one thousand and ninety-two; in five years they are one thousand eight hundred and twenty; and in eight years two thousand nine hundred and twelve days.14. To the moon alone belong in three years one thousand and sixty-two days; in five years it has fifty days less than the sun, for an addition being made to the one thousand and sixty-two days, in five years there are one thousand seven hundred and seventy days; and the days of the moon in eight years are two thousand eight hundred and thirty-two days.15. For its days in eight years are less than those of the sun by eighty days, which eighty days are its diminution in eight years.16. The year then becomes truly complete according to the station of the moons, and the station of the sun; which rise in the different gates; which rise and set in them for thirty days.

Jubilees

2:9 – 12

8 These four great works God created on the third day. And on the fourth day He created the sun and the moon and the stars, and set them in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon all the earth, and to rule over the day and the night, and divide the 9 light from the darkness. And God appointed the sun to be a great sign on the earth for days and 10 for sabbaths and for months and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years. And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth. These three kinds He made on the fourth day. And on the fifth day He created great sea monsters in the depths of the waters, for these were the first things of flesh that were created by his hands, the fish and everything that moves in the 12 waters, and everything that flies, the birds and all their kind. And the sun rose above them to prosper (them), and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all 13 fruit−bearing trees, and all flesh.